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Changes in equity of maternal, newborn, and child health care practices in 115 districts of rural Ethiopia: implications for the health extension program.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Oct 05; 15:238.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Reducing within-country inequities in the coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) interventions is essential to improving a country's maternal and child health and survival rates. The community-based health extension program (HEP) of Ethiopia, launched in 2003, aims to provide equitable primary health care services. Since 2008 the Last Ten Kilometers Project (L10K) has been supporting the HEP in promoting equitable MNCH interventions in 115 districts covering about 14 million people. We report the inequities in MNCH programmatic indicators in 2008 and in 2010 in the L10K areas, along with changes in equity between the two survey periods, and the implications of these results for the national program.

METHODS

The study used cross-sectional surveys of 3932 and 3867 women from 129 representative kebeles (communities) conducted in December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Nineteen HEP outreach activity coverage and MNCH care practice indicators were calculated for each survey period, stratified by the inequity factors considered (i.e. age, education, wealth and distance from the nearest health facility). We calculated relative inequities using concentration indices for each of the indicators and inequity factors. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and survey design adjusted Wald's statistics were used to assess differentials in equity.

RESULTS

Education and age related inequities in the MNCH indicators were the most prominent (observed for 13 of the 19 outcomes analyzed), followed in order by wealth inequity (observed for eight indicators), and inequity due to distance from the nearest health facility (observed for seven indicators). Age inequities in six of the indicators increased between 2008 and 2010; nevertheless, there was no consistent pattern of changes in inequities during that period. Some related issues such as inequities due to wealth in household visits by the health extension workers and prevalence of modern family household; and inequities due to education in household visits by community health promoters showed improvement.

CONCLUSIONS

Addressing these inequities in MNCH interventions by age, education and wealth will contribute significantly toward achieving Ethiopia's maternal health targets for the Millennium Development Goals and beyond. HEP will require more innovative strategies to achieve equitable MNCH services and outcomes and to routinely monitor the effectiveness of those strategies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Last Ten Kilometers Project, JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc., PO Box 13898, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ali_karim@jsi.com.Ministry of Health, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, PO Box 1234, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. addishoneyt@gmail.com.Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. arayaabrha@yahoo.com.The Last Ten Kilometers Project, JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc., PO Box 13898, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. wuleta@yahoo.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26438041

Citation

Karim, Ali Mehryar, et al. "Changes in Equity of Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Care Practices in 115 Districts of Rural Ethiopia: Implications for the Health Extension Program." BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 15, 2015, p. 238.
Karim AM, Tamire A, Medhanyie AA, et al. Changes in equity of maternal, newborn, and child health care practices in 115 districts of rural Ethiopia: implications for the health extension program. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15:238.
Karim, A. M., Tamire, A., Medhanyie, A. A., & Betemariam, W. (2015). Changes in equity of maternal, newborn, and child health care practices in 115 districts of rural Ethiopia: implications for the health extension program. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15, 238. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0668-z
Karim AM, et al. Changes in Equity of Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Care Practices in 115 Districts of Rural Ethiopia: Implications for the Health Extension Program. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Oct 5;15:238. PubMed PMID: 26438041.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Changes in equity of maternal, newborn, and child health care practices in 115 districts of rural Ethiopia: implications for the health extension program. AU - Karim,Ali Mehryar, AU - Tamire,Addis, AU - Medhanyie,Araya Abrha, AU - Betemariam,Wuleta, Y1 - 2015/10/05/ PY - 2014/09/22/received PY - 2015/09/24/accepted PY - 2015/10/7/entrez PY - 2015/10/7/pubmed PY - 2016/6/24/medline SP - 238 EP - 238 JF - BMC pregnancy and childbirth JO - BMC Pregnancy Childbirth VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: Reducing within-country inequities in the coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) interventions is essential to improving a country's maternal and child health and survival rates. The community-based health extension program (HEP) of Ethiopia, launched in 2003, aims to provide equitable primary health care services. Since 2008 the Last Ten Kilometers Project (L10K) has been supporting the HEP in promoting equitable MNCH interventions in 115 districts covering about 14 million people. We report the inequities in MNCH programmatic indicators in 2008 and in 2010 in the L10K areas, along with changes in equity between the two survey periods, and the implications of these results for the national program. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional surveys of 3932 and 3867 women from 129 representative kebeles (communities) conducted in December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Nineteen HEP outreach activity coverage and MNCH care practice indicators were calculated for each survey period, stratified by the inequity factors considered (i.e. age, education, wealth and distance from the nearest health facility). We calculated relative inequities using concentration indices for each of the indicators and inequity factors. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and survey design adjusted Wald's statistics were used to assess differentials in equity. RESULTS: Education and age related inequities in the MNCH indicators were the most prominent (observed for 13 of the 19 outcomes analyzed), followed in order by wealth inequity (observed for eight indicators), and inequity due to distance from the nearest health facility (observed for seven indicators). Age inequities in six of the indicators increased between 2008 and 2010; nevertheless, there was no consistent pattern of changes in inequities during that period. Some related issues such as inequities due to wealth in household visits by the health extension workers and prevalence of modern family household; and inequities due to education in household visits by community health promoters showed improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing these inequities in MNCH interventions by age, education and wealth will contribute significantly toward achieving Ethiopia's maternal health targets for the Millennium Development Goals and beyond. HEP will require more innovative strategies to achieve equitable MNCH services and outcomes and to routinely monitor the effectiveness of those strategies. SN - 1471-2393 UR - http://www.nlm.medscape.idmu.unboundmedicine.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26438041/Changes_in_equity_of_maternal_newborn_and_child_health_care_practices_in_115_districts_of_rural_Ethiopia:_implications_for_the_health_extension_program_ L2 - https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-015-0668-z DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -